Echocardiography: The Normal Examination of Echocardiographic Measurements

Author: Bonita Anderson

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  • ISBN: 9780646468631
  • Author: Bonita Anderson
  • Publ Date: 2007-05-23
  • Edition: 2
  • Pages: 336
  • Imprint: MGA GRAPHICS
  • Status: ACT
  • ID - 6670

Table of Contents :

Chapter 1: Basic Principles of Two-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging. Fundamental Principles of 2-Dimensional Imaging. Properties of Sound Waves. The Wave Equation. Interaction of Ultrasound with Tissue. Image Production. Image Optimisation. Ultrasound Instrument Controls and Image Optimisation. Two-Dimensional Imaging Artifacts. Bioeffects and Safety. References and Suggested Reading. Chapter 2: The Two-Dimensional Echocardiographic Examination. Acoustic Windows. Imaging Planes. Standard 2-D Images. Transducer Terminology. Image Orientation. The Parasternal Position. Parasternal Long Axis View of the Left Ventricle. Parasternal Long Axis View of the Right Ventricular Inflow Tract. Parasternal Long Axis View of the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract. Parasternal Short Axis Views. Parasternal Short Axis View of the Pulmonary Artery Bifurcation. Parasternal Short Axis View of the Aorta and the Left Atrium. Parasternal Short Axis View of the Left Ventricular Outflow Tract. Parasternal Short Axis View of the Left Ventricle - Mitral Valve Level. Parasternal Short Axis View of the Left Ventricle - Papillary Muscles Level. Parasternal Short Axis View of the Left Ventricle - Apical Level. The Apical Position. Apical Four Chamber View. Apical Five Chamber View. Apical Long Axis View. Apical Two Chamber View. The Subcostal Position. Subcostal Four Chamber View. Subcostal Short Axis Views. The Suprasternal Position. Suprasternal Long Axis View. Suprasternal Short Axis View. Additional Acoustic Windows. References and Suggested Reading. Chapter 3: Basic Principles of M-Mode Echocardiography. Basic Principles of M-Mode. Advantages of M-Mode Echocardiography. Disadvantages of M-Mode Echocardiography. References and Suggested Reading. Chapter 4: The M-Mode Examination of the Heart. M-Mode Examination of the Aorta, Aortic Valve and Left Atrium. M-Mode Examination of the Mitral Valve Leaflets. M-Mode Examination of the Left Ventricle. M-Mode Examination of the Tricuspid Valve. M-Mode Examination of the Pulmonary Valve. References and Suggested Reading. Chapter 5: Basic Principles of Spectral Doppler. Normal and Abnormal Blood Flow. The Doppler Principle. Pressure Determination. The Spectral Doppler Display. Doppler Modalities and Principles. Spectral Doppler Display of PW and CW Doppler. Spectral Doppler Controls and Optimisation of Spectral Doppler Signals. Spectral Doppler Artifacts. References and Suggested Reading. Chapter 6: The Spectral Doppler Examination. Doppler Examination of Mitral Valve Inflow. Doppler Examination of the Left Ventricular Outflow Tract the Aorta. Doppler Examination of the Aorta. Doppler Examination of the Descending Aorta. Doppler Examination of Pulmonary Venous Flow. Doppler Examination of Tricuspid Valve Inflow. Doppler Examination of the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract and the Pulmonary Artery. Doppler Examination of the Hepatic Veins. Doppler Examination of the Superior Vena Cava. Doppler Tissue Imaging of the Mitral Annulus. References and Suggested Reading. Chapter 7: Basic Principles of Colour Flow Doppler Imaging. Colour Flow Doppler Principles. The Colour Doppler Display. Optimisation of Colour Flow Doppler Images. Colour Doppler Artifacts. References and Suggested Reading. Chapter 8: The Colour Flow Doppler Examination. Regurgitation in the Normal Population. Colour Flow Doppler Examination of Left Atrial Inflow. Colour Flow Doppler Examination of Left Ventricular Inflow. Colour Flow Doppler Examination of Left Ventricular Outflow. Colour Flow Doppler Examination of Aortic Flow. Colour Flow Doppler Examination of Right Atrial Inflow. Colour Flow Doppler Examination of Right Ventricular Inflow. Colour Flow Doppler Examination of the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract and the Pulmonary Artery. References and Suggested Reading. Chapter 9: Two-Dimensional Echocardiographic Measurements and Calculations. Linear Dimensional Measurements. Area Calculations. Cardiac Chamber Volumes. Left Ventricular Systolic Function. Left Ventricular Mass. Right Ventricular Systolic Function. References and Suggested Reading. Chapter 10: M-Mode Echocardiographic Measurements and Calculations. Cardiac Chamber Dimensions. Left Ventricular Systolic Function. Left Ventricular Mass. Valvular Stenosis. Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction. Intracardiac Pressure Estimation. References and Suggested Reading. Chapter 11: Basic Doppler Haemodynamic Calculations. Volumetric Flow Calculations. The Continuity Principle. The Bernoulli Equation. Determination of Pressure Gradients. References and Suggested Reading. Chapter 12: Doppler Valve Area Calculations. Continuity Equation for the Calculation of Valve Areas. Calculation of Valve Areas by the Stroke Volume Method. Calculation of the Mitral Valve Area by the Proximal Isovelocity Surface Area Method. Calculation of Mitral Valve Area by the Pressure Half-Time and Deceleration Time Methods. References and Suggested Reading. Chapter 13: Doppler Quantification of Regurgitant Lesions. Spectral Doppler Indicators of Significant Regurgitation. Colour Doppler Imaging of Regurgitant Jets. Regurgitant Volumes and Regurgitant Fractions. Effective Regurgitant Orifice Areas. References and Suggested Reading. Chapter 14: Doppler Assessment of Ventricular Systolic Function. Stroke Volume, Cardiac Output and Cardiac Index Calculations. dP/dt in the Assessment of Ventricular Systolic Function. Systolic Myocardial Velocities in the Assessment of Ventricular Systolic Function. Strain and Strain Rate Imaging. Myocardial Performance Index. References and Suggested Reading. Chapter 15: Doppler Assessment of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function. Definitions. Relaxation and Compliance. Indices used in the Assessment of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function. Patterns of Diastolic Dysfunction. Limitations and Considerations to the Assessment of Diastolic Function. References and Suggested Reading. Appendices. Index

Description:

This popular title has been revised to incorporate recent developments and new guidelines in the field of echocardiography. Chapters on the principles of two-dimensional ultrasound imaging and Doppler echocardiography have been expanded and include sections relating to imaging and Doppler artifacts. As in the first edition, the focus is predominately on the practical aspects of clinical Echocardiography. The primary objective of this text is to detail the basic principles of adult transthoracic echocardiography including the theoretical concepts, methodologies, limitations and clinical significance of echocardiographic calculations. "Step by step" instructions and practical examples have also been included as a guide for the performance of certain measurements and calculations. A valuable guide for the trainee sonographer and teachers of Echocardiography, this publication includes over 350 figures including practical examples, illustrations and ultrasound images, mostly in full colour. This new edition contains 336 printed pages of information and is bound in an attractive, durable hard cover. This publication is the culmination Bonita Anderson's career in echocardiography which spans more than 20 years.

Author Biography:

Bonita Anderson has appointments as a Senior Lecturer in Cardiac Ultrasound at the Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia and as the Echocardiography Educator at The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. She is also a popular national and international speaker. An Accredited Medical Sonographer, Bonita holds a Diploma in Medical Ultrasonography (Cardiac) and a Master of Applied Science (Medical Ultrasound). Bonita has been actively involved in the education and assessment of cardiac sonographers for many years.


 

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