Physical Rehabilitation: Evidence-Based Examination, Evaluation, and Intervention

Author: Michelle H. Cameron


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  • ISBN: 9780721603612
  • Author: Michelle H. Cameron
  • Publ Date: 2007-06-11
  • Edition:
  • Pages: 1120
  • Imprint: SAUNDERS *#
  • Status: ACT
  • ID - 7128

Table of Contents :

Ch01: Introduction *Introduces the student to physical rehabilitation *Includes an introduction to disablement models (Nagi, ICIDH, ICF) and the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice, 2e * Introduces the student to the text, including the structure, its basis in the APTA Guide to Physical Therapist Practice, 2e, and the additional resources available with the text Ch02: Evidence-based Practice *Presents the history and principles of evidence-based practice *Includes a detailed discussion of techniques for evaluating the quality of research studies including criteria for what makes a study good or bad Ch03: Skeletal Demineralization *Pathology discussion includes: *Bone physiology (Unique) *Risk factors (Unique) *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Testing considerations for patients with skeletal demineralization *An overview of medical tests for bone mineral density *Intervention discussion includes: *Aerobic exercise *Resistance training *Weight-bearing exercise *Body mechanics training *Medications, diet, and rehabilitation interventions for osteoporotic spinal fractures Ch04: Posture *Introduction covers ideal alignment and forces affecting posture *Pathology discussion includes: *Impaired posture *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *General posture *Joint positions and motions, Positions and motions of specific joints (including the spine) *Joint alignment by region *Range of motion *Muscle performance test *Intervention discussion includes: *Stretching and mobilization *Stabilization *Exercise *Coverage of proper alignment and control by region (Unique) Ch05: Muscle Weakness *Chapter begins with discussion of muscle structure, including physiology of muscle contraction and factors that affect muscle performance (Unique) *Pathology discussion includes: *Muscle strain *Disuse atrophy *Muscle diseases *Neurological diseases affecting muscle performance *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Testing of muscle performance and joint integrity *Circulation, ventilation and respiration/gas exchange *Orthotic, protective and support devices *Intervention discussion includes: *Overload and SAID principles *Exercise prescription and progression (Unique) *Neuromuscular electrical stimulation *Resistance training *Muscle strength (isometric, isotonic, isokinetic, or plyometric) training (Unique) Ch06: Connective Tissue Dysfunction *Chapter focuses on systemic inflammatory diseases that cause joint inflammation *Pathology discussion includes: *Systemic lupus erythematosus *Rheumatoid arthritis *Spondyloarthropathies *Polymyalgia rheumatica *Polymyositis and dermatomyositis *Sjogren's syndrome *Crystal-induced arthropathies *Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Focuses on musculoskeletal and neuromuscular examination *Functional examination includes discussion of self-care and home *management as well as community and leisure integration *Intervention discussion includes: *Concerns specific to all disease processes discussed Ch07: Localized inflammation *Discussion focuses on osteoarthritis, bursitis, tendonitis, and tenosynovitis *Pathology discussion includes: *Stages of tissue healing (Unique) *Components of the functional joint complex (Unique) *Specific inflammatory conditions: osteoarthritis, bursitis, capsulitis, ligament sprain, muscle strain, tendinitis, tenosynovitis, plantar faciitis, tensor fascia lata fasciitis, and pre- and post-natal soft tissue inflammation (Unique) *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Focus on musculoskeletal and functional examinations (gait, locomotion, and balance; assistive and adaptive devices/orthotic, protective, and supportive devices; ergonomics and body mechanics) *Intervention discussion includes: *Iontophoresis *Manual therapy *Therapeutic exercise *Orthotics *Joint protection and tool modification *Conservation of energy Ch08: Spinal Disorders *Discussion of low back pain, spinal degeneration, radiculopathy, intervertebral disc disease, spinal stenosis, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, whiplash-associated disorders, and back pain during (and after) pregnancy *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Specific examination techniques (including range of motion tests, muscle performance tests, mechanical provocation tests, peripheral nerve tests, neurodynamic tests) *Intervention discussion includes: *Techniques for specialized topics (spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and whiplash) (Unique) *Special tests includes discussion of vertebral artery test, sacroiliac joint tests, examination of neighboring joints (Unique) *Detailed mobility examination tests *Tests for spinal instability (Unique) *Craniovertebral joint examination tests (Unique) Ch09: Fractures (Unique) *Chapter begins with an introduction to normal bone *Pathology discussion includes: *Fracture etiology, classification, risk factors, and healing *Healing discussion that covers primary and secondary healing, stages and prognosis of healing, and types of fixation *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Examination for peripheral nerve integrity *Examination of function (including gait, locomotion, and balance, and an examination of pre-existing assistive, adaptive, or support devices) *Intervention discussion includes: *Communication, Documentation *Exercise, Conditioning *Functional training *Manual therapy *Physical, mechanical, and electrotherapeutic modalities Ch10: Joint Arthroplasty (Unique) *Chapter covers arthroplasty of the hip, knee, shoulder, elbow, wrist, and fingers *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Range of motion and joint mobility *Muscle performance *Gait, locomotion, and balance *Intervention discussion includes: *Options specific to the type of arthroplasty discussed *Specific intervention topics within individual joints focus on examination, pathology, prognosis, and interventions (including pre- and post-operative care) *Individual interventions such as the use of modalities and reintegration of previous activities Ch11: Soft Tissue Surgery (Unique) *Pathology discussion includes: *Non-mineralized connective tissues of the musculoskeletal system: ligaments and tendons, articular cartilage, joint capsules, superficial fascia, and synovium *Biomechanics *Effects of immobilization and remobilization *Overview of rehabilitation following soft-tissue surgery *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Functional examination covering gait, locomotion, and balance; orthotic, protective, and support devices; ergonomics and body mechanics; environmental barriers; and work, community, and leisure integration *Intervention discussion includes: *General recommendations for the immediate and intermediate postoperative phases as well as in advanced strengthening and return to activity phases *Specific recommendations after surgery of bursa and/or synovium, cartilage, fascia, ligament or capsules, or tendons (all tissue-specific topics cover examination, prognosis, and intervention) Ch12: Amputations and Prostheses *Pathology discussion includes: *Basic surgical procedures *Reasons for amputations (including acquired versus congenital conditions) *Types of amputations (both upper- and lower-extremity) *Illustrations to clearly demonstrate levels of amputation *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems, but is specific to the needs of a patient with an amputation *Focus on the musculoskeletal examination and nerve sensation *Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Prognosis discussion includes: *Medicare/Medicaid functional levels *Functional impact of amputation on the patient *Prognoses in patients with specific medical conditions *Intervention discussion includes: *Pre- and post-operative care (mental, emotional, and physical) *Early postoperative management *Lower extremity prosthetic optionsh26 *Upper extremity prosthetic options (Unique) *Prosthetics for lower extremity (partial foot, Syme's, transtibial, knee, transfemoral, hip, transpelvic, translumbar, and bilateral) and upper extremity (partial hand, transradial, transhumeral) *Sections dedicated to functional training are also included (dressing, transfers, balance, gait, wearing schedule, use training, vocations, care of the residual limb) Ch13: Balance and Fall Risk *Epidemiology and definitions of balance and falls *Pathology discussion includes: *Causes of balance dysfunction (peripheral sensory, central sensory, peripheral motor, central motor, and cognitive impairments) *Impact of poor balance and limited postural control on gait *Neurological disorders that affect balance (including Parkinson's disease, ataxia, and multiple sclerosis) *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Focus on the musculoskeletal, neuromuscular and functional examinations *Six standardized tests of locomotion, balance, and fall risk *Intervention discussion includes: *Flexibility exercises, strength training *Vestibular training, sensory and perceptual training *Postural awareness training *Canalith repositioning treatments or maneuvers *Patient education and injury prevention Ch14: Impaired Neuromuscular Development *Introduction to pediatric disorders (Unique) *Introduction covers development terminology; delay, dissociation, and deviance; core developmental concepts (including forces that can impact development), principles of motor development and acquisition of motor milestones *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems with a focus on how those systems develop *Standardized tests of participation and activity *Eight common measures for developmental testing Ch15: Pediatric Nonprogressive Central Nervous System Disorders *Discussion of pediatric disorders (Unique) *Main chapter focus is cerebral palsy and spinal dysraphism in the pediatric population *Intervention discussion includes: *Activity- and impairment-focused interventions *Prevention of secondary complications *Modification of the home environment *Surgical interventions *Structure of each section reflects structure of individual chapters from the text (follows the progression of pathology, examination, evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis, and intervention) Ch16: Adult Nonprogressive Central Nervous System Disorders *This chapter focuses on stroke and traumatic brain injury *Introduction covers stroke etiology and sequelae *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Focus on the neuromuscular examination including: arousal, attention, and cognition; spasticity and muscle tone; and coordination, and movement patterns *Functional examination: balance, and gait, self-care and home management and a variety of standardized functional measures specific to this population *Intervention discussion includes: *Neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) *Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) *Task-oriented approaches *Functional training in self-care and home management Ch17: Progressive Central Nervous System Disorders *This chapter focuses on Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis *Pathology discussion includes: *Stages of progressive central nervous system disorders *A table outlining common impairments and disabilities at different disease stages *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Considerations specific to each condition *Intervention discussion includes: *Strength training and aerobic exercise *Gait and balance training *Sensory cueing *Relaxation *Functional and task-specific training *Assistive devices and equipment *Ventilatory support and airway clearance techniques *Considerations specific to each condition are included within individual intervention topics Ch18: Peripheral Nerve Injuries *Chapter includes an overview of the peripheral nervous system including anatomy, physiology, and pathology of peripheral nerves (Unique) *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Neuromuscular examination focuses on: pain, cranial and peripheral nerve integrity, reflex integrity, and sensory integrity *Three approaches to cranial and peripheral nerve integrity testing: electrophysiological, provocative, and autonomic *Wide range of provocative tests used to detect nerve injury: Tinel's test, Roos test, neural tension tests, elbow flexion test, Phalen's test, carpal compression test, and piriformis tests *A discussion of assessment of muscle function in children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (Unique) *Intervention discussion includes: *Patient education *Therapeutic exercise (including nerve gliding exercises) *Joint range of motion and muscle stretching *Sensory retraining *Manual therapy techniques *Splints and orthoses *Electrotherapeutic, physical, and manual modalities *Surgical intervention Ch19: Polyneuropathies *Pathology discussion includes incidence, etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation for: *Guillain-Barre Syndrome *Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculopathy *Diabetic neuropathy *Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease *Toxic neuropathies *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems, and focuses on nerve integrity, electrodiagnostic evaluation, quantitative sensory testing, and the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing *Intervention discussion includes: *Education (patient and family) *Exercise *Electrical stimulation *Orthoses Ch20: Nonprogressive Spinal Cord Disorders *Pathology discussion includes: *Spinal shock *Evolution of spinal cord injury *Autonomic dysreflexia *Pressure ulcers *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Neuromuscular examination includes examination of cognition, pain, reflex integrity, sensory integrity, and motor control *American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scale *Concerns of circulation, ventilation, aerobic capacity, and levels of function (Unique) *Intervention discussion includes: *Options specific to the acute and rehabilitation phases *Ten types of mobility skills including five types of transitions *Functional training and leisure activity reintegration *Airway clearance techniques Ch21: Disorders of Consciousness: Coma, Vegetative State, and Minimally Conscious State *Pathology discussion includes: *Etiologies for changes in consciousness including structural lesions, toxic or metabolic abnormalities, or diffuse brain damage (Unique) *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) in a manner that addresses the medical needs of patients with changes in level of consciousness *Intervention discussion includes: *Options presented to address general care concerns for patients with varying levels of awareness as well as optional interventions for special-needs patients (e.g. sensory stimulation or casting) Ch22: Vital Signs *Definitions and measurements of: temperature, pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, arterial oxygen saturation, and pain *Discussions also include outside factors that can affect vital sign measurements (e.g. white coat hypertension or low perfusion rates) (Unique) *The discussion of blood pressure includes both hypo- and hypertension (Unique) *Specific information on autonomic dysreflexia Ch23: Deconditioning *Pathology discussion includes: *Introduction to the processes that result in deconditioning *Etiologies *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Body composition and BMI *Aerobic capacity and endurance *Sub-maximal aerobic testing to estimation of VO2max *Aerobic capacity *Self-care and home management *Intervention discussion includes: *Communication, education, and motivation *Aerobic exercise guided by heart rate, metabolic demand, and perceived exertion *Weight and circuit weight training Ch24: Airway Clearance Dysfunction *Examination discussion includes: *Chest examination; inspection; auscultation, palpation, and percussion *Intervention discussion includes: *Breathing strategies for airway clearance *Manual and mechanical techniques *Mechanical devices for airway clearance Ch25: Congestive Heart Failure *Pathology discussion includes: *Classification of types of heart failure *Characteristics of heart failure contributing to exercise intolerance *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems with a focus on the cardiovascular and pulmonary components *Circulation, and aerobic capacity and endurance *Staging of heart failure *Functional examination: quality-of-life measures *Interventiondiscussion includes: *Aerobic, resistive, or interval training *Safety concerns for patients with heart failure *Special considerations for patients with heart transplants or mechanical assist devices Ch26: Respiratory Failure *Pathology discussion includes: *Anatomy of the respiratory system *Physiology of ventilation and gas exchange *Pathophysiology of the respiratory system *Examination discussion includes: *Oxygen requirements and ventilation *Arterial blood gases *Chest and abdominal muscle function *Intervention discussion includes: *Oxygen prescription, mechanical ventilation, breathing techniques, inspiratory muscle training, and behavioral interventions Ch27: Lymphatic System Disorders *Thorough introduction to the anatomy and physiology of the lymphatic system *Pathology discussion includes: *Definitions of primary- and secondary- lymphedema *Stages of lymphedema *Examination discussion includes: *Measurement of edema *Evaluation of circulation *Intervention discussion includes: *Manual therapy (complete decongestive physical therapy and manual lymphatic drainage) *Compression therapy (pneumatic, bandaging, garments) *Exercise Ch28: Tissue Healing and Pressure Ulcers *Chapter includes epidemiology of pressure ulcers *The chapter describes the process of wound healing and serves as an introduction to chapters 29, 30, and 31 *Pathology discussion includes: *Wound healing *Chronic wounds *Etiology of pressure ulcers (including an extended discussion of risk factors) *Examinationdiscussion includes: *Wound and periwound tissue description *Wound measurements *Techniques for taking wound cultures *Pressure ulcer staging *Intervention discussion includes: *Wound prevention: support surfaces, positioning, moisture management, and nutrition *Wound dressing *Adjunctive therapies: pulsed lavage with suction, vacuum-assisted closure, and electrical stimulation Ch29: Vascular Ulcers *Pathology discussion includes: *Vascular anatomy *Etiology of arterial ulcers, venous ulcers, and mixed arterial and venous ulcers *Examination discussion includes: *Circulation (pulses, ankle-brachial index, transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen measurement, capillary refill time *Typical characteristics of venous and arterial ulcers *Intervention discussion includes: *For arterial ulcers: dressings, pain management, exercise and activity, electrotherapy, growth factors, intermittent pneumatic (dynamic) compression, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, nutrition, surgery, education *For venous ulcers: focus on compression therapy Ch30: Neuropathic Ulcers *This chapter focuses on treatment of ulcers associated with diabetes *Pathology discussion includes: *Sensory, motor, and autonomic neuropathies *Pathology of diabetes mellitus *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Sensation testing *Evaluation of circulation (capillary refill test, venous filling time, rubor of dependency test, great toe pressure, transcutaneous oxygen tension, systemic blood pressure) *Integumentary integrity *Intervention discussion includes: *Patient education *Blood glucose control *Exercise *Orthoses and footwear *Foot care *Treatment of the neuropathic wound focuses on off-loading with total-contact casting or cast alternatives *Management of the post-amputation wound and post-healing foot Ch31: Burns *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Integumentary examination focuses on burn depth, burn size, and scar *Intervention discussion includes: *Wound care *Edema control *Pain control *Strengthening, range of motion, and aerobic exercises *Scar management *Rehabilitation for associated injuries Ch32: Gait Assessment and Training *This chapter provides clear and extensive discussion of functional walking and the gait cycle (Unique) *Pathology discussion focuses on: *Each phase of the cycle; their subdivisions and functional events; temporal and distance parameters; and limb and trunk kinematics *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems in relation to gait *Gait-specific tests and measures in a framework of observational gait analysis (OGA) and stride analysis *Observational gait analysis: procedure, reliability and validity, videotaping, standardized tests and measures that rely on OGA, and standardized tests and measures that do not rely on OGA *Stride analysis: gait velocity, and footfall measurement technologies discussion includes hand-held stopwatch, six-minute walk test, inked footprint methods, instrumented walkways, stride analyzers and in-shoe microprocessor systems *Intervention discussion includes: *Task-specific training for gait *Body weight support treadmill training *Non-task-specific training for gait (strength training, neurodevelopmental treatment approaches, motor relearning program approach, balance training, and aerobic conditioning) Ch33: Assistive Devices for Mobility: Canes, Crutches, Walkers, and Wheelchairs *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *Musculoskeletal and neuromuscular examination, including discussions of range of motion, muscle performance, pain, nerve integrity, and sensory integrity *Intervention discussion includes: *Selection of assistive devices for ambulation (canes, crutches, and walkers) *Fitting of assistive devices for ambulation includes canes, crutches, walkers, and complications of assistive device use *Wheelchair selection *Wheelchair features: mode of propulsion (dependent, independent, combination), frame, seat, backrest, armrests, front rigging, wheels, and support accessories *Wheelchair fitting: seat, backrest, armrests, and complications of wheelchair use Ch34: Orthotics *Design factors (function, comfort, pressure systems) and materials *Lower-extremity orthoses: *Shoe and foot *Ankle-foot *Knee-ankle-foot *Hip-knee-ankle-foot *Trunk-hip-knee-ankle-foot *Spinal orthoses: *Trunk (corsets, and rigid lumbosacral and thoracolumbosacral) *Cervical *Orthoses for patients with scoliosis *Upper-extremity orthoses: *Wrist-hand *Thumb and finger *Forearm and elbow *Shoulder Ch35: Environmental Assessment: Home, Community, and Work *Examination discussion includes: *All body systems (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary) *A focus on environmental barriers outside the home, inside the home, in specific rooms, and special work considerations *A section on Americans with Disabilities legislation *Intervention discussion focuses on: *Optimization and modification of environmental barriers *Environmental barriers: *Exterior (access routes, stairs, ramps, handrails, elevators, escalators) *Interior barriers (access routes, doorways, turning, lighting, seating, countertops, reach zones, sinks) *Specific rooms (kitchen, bathroom, toilet, bath/shower, bedroom, laundry room) *Communication (telephone, writing, computer use) *Unique workplace considerations


This text applies concepts from the "Guide to Physical Therapist Practice," in conjunction with evaluation of the current evidence, to provide balanced coverage of rehabilitation practice across the preferred practice patterns of physical therapy: musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and integumentary. This book gives specific, detailed, evidence-based information on the pathology, etiology, examination, evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis and interventions for patients involved in physical rehabilitation.


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