Food Safety: The Science of Keeping Food Safe

Author: SHAW, IAN C.


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  • ISBN: 9781444337228
  • Author: SHAW, IAN C.
  • Publ Date: 2012-11-16
  • Edition:
  • Pages: 440
  • Imprint: WILEY-BLACKWELL*#
  • Status: ACT
  • ID - 190128

Table of Contents :

Preface x
Acknowledgements xii
1 Introduction 1
A brief history of food safety 1
Evolution of cellular protection mechanisms 2
2 Food Risk 13
Introduction 13
What is risk? 14
Measuring hazard 16
Determining risk 18
Acceptable risk 23
Risk versus benefit 26
Risk perception 27
The precautionary principle 30
Food risk assessment 31
Relative risk and risk ranking 33
Risk management 33
Risk communication 36
Quantitative risk assessment 36
Take home messages 45
Further reading 45
3 Bacteria 46
Introduction 46
The discovery of bacteria 47
The biology of bacteria 52
The bacterial ecology of food 61
Human bacterial pathogens on food 62
Gastroenteritis 63
Food-borne pathogenic bacteria 63
Take home messages 101
Further reading 102
4 Viruses 103
Introduction 103
The discovery of viruses 103
The biology of viruses 105
Diseases caused by viruses and mechanisms of viral transmission 108
Other food-borne viruses 115
Take home messages 116
Further reading 116
5 Parasites 117
Introduction 117
What are parasites? 117
Flatworms Platyhelminthes 118
Tapeworms Cestodes 118
Flukes Trematodes 121
Nematodes 124
Protozoa 130
Take home messages 140
Further reading 140
6 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) 141
Introduction 141
The history of BSE 141
The epidemiology of BSE in England 142
Spongiform encephalopathies 143
Prions 143
The symptoms of BSE 145
BSE cases in the UK 146
BSE transmission and the origins of PrP SC 146
The risk to human consumers of BSE beef nvCJD 149
The politics of BSE and implications for food safety worldwide 153
BSE incidence around the world 153
Take home messages 154
Further reading 155
7 Chemical Contaminants 156
Introduction 156
Pesticides 157
Insecticides 164
Herbicides 185
Fungicides 187
Veterinary medicines 192
Growth promoting chemicals 203
Fertilisers 208
Natural environmental chemicals 210
Non-agricultural environmental pollutants 213
Residues monitoring programmes 217
Dietary intake and risk to human consumers 218
Take home messages 219
Further reading 219
8 Natural Toxins 220
Introduction 220
Why produce natural toxins? 221
Natural toxins in the human food chain 222
Plant toxins 224
Mycotoxins 237
Phytohaemagglutinins in beans 241
Bacterial toxins 243
Phytoestrogens 243
Take home messages 243
Further reading 243
9 Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 244
Introduction 244
The first observations of xenoestrogens effects 245
Estrogen receptors ERs 246
Molecular requirements for estrogenicity 247
Estrogens are present in both males and females 247
Xenoestrogens 248
Population level effects of exposure to xenoestrogens 261
The positive health effects of xenoestrogens 264
Take home messages 265
Further reading 265
10 Genetically Modified Food 266
Introduction 266
A brief introduction to nucleic acids, genetics and molecular biology 267
Nucleic acids 267
Converting the genetic code into a protein 268
The history of GM crops 271
The tools of the genetic engineer 272
Glyphosate-resistant crops 274
Insect-protected crops BT toxin 275
GM crops with enhanced flavour or nutritional properties 276
What happens if humans eat GM crops or foods made from them? 277
Changed biochemistry in GM crops 278
What is the effect of eating DNA and RNA? 278
GM animals 279
Take home messages 279
Further reading 279
11 Colours, Flavours and Preservatives 280
Introduction 280
Food colours 282
Flavours 290
Preservatives 305
Take home messages 319
Further reading 319
12 Food Irradiation 320
Introduction 320
Different types of radioactivity 321
How irradiation kills cells 323
The history of food irradiation 324
The effect of radiation on microorganisms 325
How is food irradiated? 326
The effects of irradiation on food chemistry 326
The effects of irradiation on vitamins 327
Radiation dose 331
Does irradiation make food radioactive? 332
Health effects of food irradiation 332
The use of food irradiation around the world 333
Take home messages 334
Further reading 334
13 Food Safety and the Unborn Child 335
Introduction 335
You are what your mother ate 335
Growth and development of the embryo and fetus 337
Effects of food chemical contaminants 344
Effects of microbiological contaminants 345
Effects on ova and sperm 346
Take home messages 347
Further reading 347
14 Organic Food 349
Introduction 349
What does organic mean? 350
The history and philosophy of organic farming 351
Demand for organic food 352
Organic farming methods 352
Organic farming legislation 353
Organic fertilisers 354
Organic pest control 355
Organic weed control 355
Animal health remedies 356
Food processing 356
Is organic food better for you? 357
Myths and facts about organic food 361
Take home messages 364
Further reading 365
15 Food Allergy 367
Introduction 367
What is an allergy? 368
The basics of immunology 368
Immunity and the immune response 368
Sensitisation 371
Food allergies 373
The genetics of allergy 373
Food allergens 374
Milk allergy 375
Peanut allergy 377
Soy allergy 380
Nut allergies 381
Seafood allergies 383
Gluten allergy (coeliac disease) 386
Allergy to eggs 389
Allergen cross-reactivity 390
Banana/latex allergy 390
Food additives allergy 392
Why is the incidence of food allergies increasing? 392
A cautionary note 393
Take home messages 393
Further reading 394
16 Food Legislation 395
Introduction 395
Legal processes how laws are made 397
A very brief history of food law 398
Food legislation around the world 399
Food legislation in the USA 399
Food legislation in the UK 402
Food legislation in New Zealand 405
Policing food legislation 407
Does food legislation reduce risks to consumers? 410
Case example non-compliance follow-up 410
The relevance of national food legislation in a global food market 411
Take home messages 412
Further reading 412
Index 413
A colour plate section falls between pages 52 and 53


Food safety is a modern concept. Remarkably, it is only in the last 200 years that such concepts as foodborne germs, and the means of combating them (such as antiseptics and refrigeration), have been popularised. Yet in the 21st Century, consumers in the developed world do not accept that the food which they purchase and consume might carry a risk of making them ill that our food should be safe is something we all take for granted.

Food safety is a multi-faceted subject, using microbiology, chemistry, standards and regulations and risk management to address issues involving bacterial pathogens, chemical contaminants, natural toxicants, additive safety, allergens and more. In Food Safety: The Science of Keeping Food Safe, Professor Ian C. Shaw introduces these topics with wit and practical wisdom, providing an accessible guide to a vibrant and constantly evolving subject. Each chapter proceeds from introductory concepts and builds towards a sophisticated treatment of the topic, allowing the reader to take what knowledge is required for understanding food safety at a range of levels.

Illustrated with photographs and examples throughout, this book is the ideal starting point for students and non-specialists seeking to learn about food safety issues, and an enjoyable and stylish read for those who already have an academic or professional background in the area.


Illustrated with photographs and examples throughout,this book is the ideal starting point for students andnon-specialists seeking to learn about food safety issues, and anenjoyable read for those who already have an academic orprofessional background in the area. (South AfricanFood Science and Technology, 1 August 2014)
This valuable handbook is an ideal reading for studentsand non-specialists to be introduced into the world of all the foodsafety issues, but also a necessary and stylish read for all thosewho are already familiar with these topics because they have anacademic or professional background in this special field of foodsciences. (Advances in Food Science, 1 January2013)
Summing Up: Highly recommended. Lower-divisionundergraduates and above; general readers. (Choice, 1 October 2013)

Author Biography:

Ian C. Shaw is Director of Biochemistry and Professor of Toxicology at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. His CV includes academic positions in biochemistry, toxicology and applied biology, as well as experience as a clinical scientist and a member of various international government advisory bodies on food safety. His book Is it Safe to Eat? was made into a television series for TV New Zealand.


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